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  • ID:4-5991334 初中英语异域文化素材(打包31套)

    初中英语/素材专区/文字资料


    Help foreign guests at formal dinner
    With the Spring Festival just round the corner, your mouth might already be watering at the thought of the coming banquet.
    春节就要到了。节日里自然少不了聚餐。一想到宴会上的美食,你是不是就直接流口水了?
    The traditional family banquet is the year’s most important meal for millions of Chinese at home and abroad. You probably know all about the food and have tried many different dishes. But do you really know how to behave properly at such an important meal If a foreign friend was visiting, could you explain Chinese table manners Don’t worry if you are not sure, here are some tips.
    中国传统的春节家宴是海内外亿万华人一年中最重要的一顿饭。大家品尝了各式各样的菜肴,可能对春节里的饭菜很熟悉了,但是,你知道在春节宴会上如何做到举止得体吗?倘若有外国朋友前来拜访,你能给他说说中国的餐桌礼仪吗?不必担心,这儿有一些建议。
    The main difference between Chinese and Western eating habits is that unlike the West, where everyone has their own plate of food, in China the dishes are placed on the table and everybody shares. It is always polite to let guests or elder people at the table taste every dish first.
    中西餐桌礼仪最主要的差别在于,西方人有自己单独的菜盘,而中国人喜欢把所有的菜放在餐桌上,大家一起吃。出于礼貌,中国人总是让客人或者年纪大的人先品尝每一道菜。
    ================================================
    压缩包内容:
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  • ID:4-5936117 初中英语自然拼读法的基本规则(全面总结)

    初中英语/素材专区/文字资料

    自然拼读法的基本规则(全面总结) 48个国际音标 长元音 /ɑ:/ /?:/ /?:/ /i:/ /u:/ 短元音 /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /?/ /e/ /?/ 双元音/e?/ /a?/ /??/ /??/ /e?/ /??/ /??/ /a?/ 轻辅音/p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /θ/ /s/ 浊辅音/b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /?/ /z/ 轻辅音/?/ /h/ /ts/ /t?/ /tr/ 浊辅音/?/ /r/ /dz/ /d?/ /dr/ 鼻音/m/ /n/ /?/ 半元音/j/ / w/ 边音/?/ 48个英语音标犹如60个汉语拼音,只要熟练地掌握了它们,对学习英语的作用是相当大的。 语音知识: 字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母只有a,e,i(y),o,u 2) 音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48个音素,即20个元音音素和28个辅音音素. 3) 元音音素:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20个元音。 4) 辅音音素:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。 5) 音节:由元音音素和辅音音素构成的发音单位。含有一个元音音素的声音片段就是一个音节。例如:hi,mom,first单音节词,stu'dent,tea'cher,un'der'stand多音节词。音节的划分对于单词的读音至关重要,我们所要学习的自然拼读发音规律,其实都是针对单音节单词的,对于多音节单词,我们要先把单词划分成为一个一个的音节,然后在对每个音节应用自然平度发音规律。 6) 开音节: ① 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike home due; ② 辅音+元音 he,go,hi。 7) 闭音节: ①辅音+元音+辅音 bad,bed,sit,hot,cup; ②元音+辅音it。 8) 重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。 字母或字母组合与音素之间的对应规则大揭秘 辅音字母的读音: ①音形一致的字母和字母组合:b[b] ,p [p], m[ m], f [ f], d [d], t[t], n[n], l [ l ], g [g], k [k], h [h], r [r], v [v], w [w], z [z], dr [ dr] dress, tr [tr]tree, ts [ts] cats ②音形不一致的字母: c [k] [s] call,city,g[g] [d?]get,geography , j [d? ]jacket,enjoy, x [ks] [gz]box,exam, y [j]yellow, s [s] [z] some,always ③最常见的辅音字母组合的拼读:sh [? ] shoe,finish, ch [t?]chair,teacher th[θ][?] think,brother, ph[f]photo, ck[k]black , kn[n]know,knife, ng[?]long, qu[ kw]question,queen, tch [t?]watch,catch, wh [w] [h]what,who, wr [r]write,wrong, ds [dz]beds ④常见辅音词头: bl-[bl]blue, br-[br]bread, gl-[gl]glass ,gr-[gr]great, kl- [kl-]clean ,kr-[kr]cross ,fl-,fr-,pl-,pr-,sk-,sl-,sm-,sn-,sp-,st-,str-,sw- ⑤常见辅音词尾:-ple[-pl]apple ,-ble[-bl]table , -tle/ttle[-tl]little, -dle/ddle [-dl]middle,-cle[-kl]uncle, -ften[-fn]often, -son/sson[-sn] [-zn]lesson,season -ven[-vn]seven ⑥另外,单词中有些时候辅音字母会不发音。 b在t,m后,不发音doubt,climb,tomb g在n前不发音sign,design,resign h在词首不发音hour,honor l在f,k,m前一般不发音 calf,talk,clam,在could里也没有发音 ⑦另还需特说明一下辅音字母y的发音: y在词首时,通常发辅音[j] yes,yellow 当y在单词词尾,而且这个单词里面没有其他元音字母时,此时y通常发元音音素/a?/my,sky,cry 而当y在一个较长一些的单词词尾时,这个单词里面没有其他元音时,y通常发元音音素 /i:/baby,city,hurry,cherry (2.)元音字母的读音: ①开音节的拼读: A 发字母本身音[ei] age, ate, name, cake, lake, take, make, game, gave, made, late, came, bate, date, face, gate, hate, page, race, same, tame, wake, gave, famous, lady, bake等。 E发字母本身音[i:] be, these, me, he, she, we, 等。 I发字母本身音[ai] I ,bike, China, like, fine, five, kite, nice, wide, Friday, ride, white, write, Chinese, ice, line, mine, life, idea, nine, 等。 O发字母本身音[??] ago, radio, go, photo, rode, old, told, hold, cold, home, those, kilo, so, homework, phone, also, no, note, robot, nose, hope, joke, close, stone, clothes, broken等。 U发字母本身音[ju:] cute, bute, mute, fume, men, pupil, argue, use, 等。 ②闭音节的拼读: A 发[? ]口型要打大 at, bad, band, apple,fat, has, am, and, cat, cap, bag, had, grand,carry,back,ran,badly,angry,sad,flat,map,mat,van,man,swam,catch,hand, fantastic, thank, black, panda, that, happy, activity, drank, dragon, taxi, 等。 E 发[e] when, met, them, smell, tell, ball, clever, every, help, better, west, then, yes,fell,desk, red, yellow, pencil, bed, bedroom, dress, festival, get, telephone, egg, went, leg, twenty, next, let, men等 I 发[i] lift,big, dinner, fish, listen, it, is, six, this, in, sister, his, him, bit, little, river, picnic, think, city, with, finish, sit, chick, skip, miss, nothing, pink, picture, visit, swim, ticket等 O发[?] drop, shop, box, bottle, coffee, lost, cross, long, pop, stop, dog, not, body, box, clock, computer, doll, got, hot, pocket, office, point, lots, doctor U发[?] us, study, funny, but, bus, sun, Sunday, summer, hurry, mum, under, understand, cut, duck, truck, lucky, fun, gun等 ③字母组合的读音也是有规律可循的。如; ea, ee字母组合的发[i:]音:tea, clean, team, eat, east, speak, please, each, easy, read, sea, teacher,need, cheese, wheel, feel, agree, green, week, thirteen, three, deep, peep, weep, sleep, jeep, see, feet, street, teeth, meet, week 部分ea字母组合发[e]: bread, heavy, breakfast, weather, head, headache, ready, deaf, oa字母组合的发[??]音:road, boat, coat,loaf ir,ur字母组合的发[ ?:]音:girl, bird, thirsty, third, first, birthday, circle, sir, shirt, skirt, dirty, skirt,turn,turtle,purple ar组合字母发 [ɑ:]音 {(a在s, ss前)也发[a:]}:hard, card, park, art, car, are, dark, arm, farmer, market, party, large, star, argue,far class, vase, glass, pass, last, past, task,, mast, vast, cast, fast等 ow字母组合有时发[??]音:window, yellow, show, slow, sow, tow, bow, mow, 等 ou, ow字母组合有时发[au]音mouth, about,, house, housework, south, how, now, town,等。 oo字母组合有时发发[u]音:hood ,头巾wool ,羊毛 look ,good , foot, room, football, took, cook wood, book, goodbye, oo字母组合有时发[ u: ]food, moon, tool, pool, zoo, too, school, cool, tooth ear字母组合有时发 [??]音:tear,dear,fear,gear,hear, near,shear,rear, ear字母组合有时和air一样发[e? ]:bear, tear, wear, pear, oy,oi字母组合发[ ?? ]音: boy, toy,coy腼腆的, foy告别宴会, soy酱油voice,noise,point ight 字母组合发[ ai ]音:right, light, night, fight, might, tight ay字母组合发[ ei]音: stay, say, day, hay干草, lay设置 -tion,-sion字母组合发[?n]音nation,sation,[?n]音 decision ough,augh字母组合发 /?/音,bought(buy过去式),caught(catch过去式) ew字母组合发[ u: ]音:blew(blow过去式),drew(draw过去式),new, grew(grow过去式) ④在单词的非重读音节中,元音字母a,e,i,o,u都发相同的音,这个音在英语中叫schwa(弱读),即我们经常听到的 /?/,例如,salad,happen,pencil,ribbon等

  • ID:4-5913396 初中英语简单句和并列句 课件(38张PPT)

    初中英语/素材专区/其他资料

    简单句的六种基本结构 主语+不及物动词 主语+系动词+表语 主语+及物动词+宾语 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 There be +主语句型 例如 This knife cuts well. She seems quite satisfied. Have you fixed my watch yet? He owed me 50 yuan. Xiao Li is helping me mend my bicycle. There stands an old tower in the east of the town. 翻译下列句子 高考前同学们常常学习到深夜. 我等你等了很久了. 玻璃很容易碎. 她听了这消息好象很平静. 他太累了,刚躺下就睡着了. 这家工厂没周生产一千辆小汽车. 请你把那本书递给我好吗? 我去找个人来帮你修理电脑. 我们感到我们的心在激烈的跳动. 有很多中国学生在国外留学. Keys Students often work deep into night before the entrance exam. I have been waiting for you for a long time. Glass breaks easily. She appeared quite calm at the news. He was so tired that he fell asleep the moment he went to bed. Keys This factory produces 1 ,000 cars a week. Will you please pass me the book? I’ll get someone to repair the computer. We could feel our hearts beating fast. There are many Chinese students studying abroad. 简单句的种类 根据使用目的, 句子可分为: 陈述句 疑问句 祁使句 感叹句 陈述句 要特别注意陈述句的否定结构 1.否定转移:主句谓语动词是think, expect, believe, suppose, guess, imagine 等表“认为, 猜想” 的动词时, 宾语从句的否定习惯上前移到主句谓语上. eg. I don’t think I know you. She doesn’t believe you are wrong. 注意: hope 不在此列. 误: I don’t hope it will rain. 正: I hope it won’t rain. not…until 的句型 非强调句型: I don’t know his name until yesterday. 强调句型: It was not until yesterday that I knew his name. 倒装句: Not until yesterday did I know his name. 有时对状语的否定也移到谓语上. 翻译: 我今天觉得不舒服. 误: I’m feeling not well today. 正: I’m not feeling well today. 2. 含有否定意义的副词 句中含有never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely, barely 时, 应视为否定句. I could hardly see anything. He rarely comes to see me. 有些句子在结构上属于肯定式, 但含有否定意义的词 None of us has been to Beijing.(否定的主语) I saw nothing in the darkness.(否定的宾语) He begged the teacher not to punish him.(否定的宾补) We could find her nowhere.(否定的状语) 3. 部分否定 all, both,either, every, everybody, everyday, everywhere, always与not 连用时, 表示部分否定. 表示全部否定要用no, neither, none, nobody, nothing, never , nowhere 等词. 肯定: All the ants go out for food. 部分否定:Not all the ants go out for food.或: All the ants don’t go out for food. 全部否定:None of the ants go out for food.或:Not any of the ants go out for food. 4. 双重否定 without与 not, no one, nobody, never, can not等否定词连用,意为‘ 无(没有) …不’ , ‘每…必’. No one can see the film without being moved to tears.人们看了这部电影无不为之感动得流泪. They never meet without quarrelling.他们每次见面必要吵架. 其他双重否定结构 He is not unfit for his job.他不是不称职. There is noboby here who is not a League member.这里人人都是团员. One can’t learn a foreign language unless he studies hard.除非用功, 否则学不好外语. He couldn’t help laughing.他禁不住大笑起来. 5. 强调肯定意义的否定结构 这些结构有cannot …too (over, enough, more) You cannot be too careful.或You cannot be over careful. You cannot be careful enough. We cannot praise him too much. ---How are you today? --- Couldn’t be better. I couldn’t agree with you more. 6.具有否定意义的肯定结构 He is too young to go to school. The problem is far from being settled. It is the last thing I want to do. Such a problem is beyond (above) me. I failed to understand the meaning of the sentence. It has been two months since I smoked. 疑问句 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 选择疑问句 反意疑问句 特殊的反意疑问句结构 1. One can’t be too sure, can one/he? 2. Tom seldom goes to the cinema, does he ? 3. The man is unfit for his job, isn’t he ? 4. Everyone knows me, doesn’t he /don’t they ? 5. No one was hurt in the accident, were they ? 6. I don’t think he can speak Japanese, can he ? 7. You don’t believe she will come, do you ? 8. What you need is more practice, isn’t it? 9. You needn’t do that when your mother is here, need you ? 10. He is a doctor but his wife is a teacher, isn’t she ? 11. Please open the window, will/would you ? 12. Let’s go for a walk, shall we ? 13. Let us know if you can go with us, will you ? 14. Let me have another try, will you ? 15. Let me help you, may I ? 16. I wish to go home , may I ? 17. Your father must be a doctor, isn’t he ? 18. You must go home right now, needn’t you ? 19. You mustn’t smoke here, must you ? 20. You must have met her yesterday, didn’t you ? 21. You must have seen the film many times, haven’t you ? 陈述部分用SO 开头, 附加部分采用“同向”疑问. So you are getting married , are you? So you don’t like my cooking, don’t you? 口语对话中, 当某人的话表示讥讽或怀疑时, 往往简略重复对方的话后再加上简短问句. ①--- Tom told me he saw a bear last night. --- He did, did he? ②--- You mustn’t listen to his story. --- Oh, I mustn’t , mustn’t I ? 祁使句 含主语的祁使句 You get out! Everybody stand up! 条件祁使句 Use your head, and (then) you’ll find a way. →If you use your head, you’ll find a way. Try again, or you’ll fail. →If you don’t try again, you’ll fail. 或You’ll fail unless you try again. 并列句 表示增补关系的并列连词: and, both…and, neither…nor, not…nor, not only …but also, as well as 等. 表选择关系的并列连词:or, or else, otherwise, either…or, whether…or. 表转折关系: but, while 表因果关系: for, so 有些副词如besides, moreover, therefore, however, nevertheless, consequently , furthermore等也可以起到并列连词的作用. while 也可表示转折, 但与but 不同的是, 主要强调上下文的一种对比关系. They were surprised that a child should work out the problem while they themselves couldn’t. when 作为并列连词意为“这时”, 位于第一分句后, 此时不能用while或 as 代替. I was just about to lie down to rest when I saw a snake in the grass. 并列连词不能与从属连词混合使用 误: Although he was sick, but he went on working. 正: Although he was sick, he went on working. He was sick, but he went on working. He was sick, and yet he went on working. Although he was sick, yet he went on working. 1.He had plenty of money _____he spent it freely. 2._________did he speak English more correctly, _______he spoke more eaily. 总结1:表示递进或顺承关系,常用的并列连词有:and, not only...but also...。 and Not only but also 3.______you are right,_____ I am (right). 4.Do you want to leave now____would you rather set off later? 总结2:表示选择关系常用的并列连词:or,either...or...。 Either or or 5.Jane said she was ill,______I saw her in the street just now. 6.The situation looked desperate_______ they didn't give up hope. 总结3:表示转折关系常用的并列连词:but,yet。 yet but 7.Jane likes apples, _______Lucy likes oranges. 8.He likes pop music, ______I am fond of folk music. 总结4:表示对比关系,常用的并列连词有:while。 while while 9.It must have rained last night,_____it is wet all over. 10.The shops were closed,______I didn't get any milk. 总结5:表示因果关系,常用的并列连词有:so,for。 for so 11.We were having a meeting______someone broke in. 12.We were about to set off _____it suddenly began to rain. 13.I had just finished my homework______Tom came to see me. when when when 总结6:when也可作并列连词,常用于下列句式: (1)sb was doing sth when... (2)sb was about to do/going to do/on the point of doing sth when... (3)sb had just done sth when....。

  • ID:4-5476790 上海市中考英语考试大纲英语总词汇表

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    上海市中考英语考试大纲英语总词汇表 A ability n. 能力,才能 able adj. 能够;有能力的 about prep. 关于 adv. 1.大约;2.到处,四处 above prep. 在……上面 abroad adv. 到(在)国外 accept v. 接受 accident n. 事故,意外的事 accurate adj. 精确的 achieve v. 达到,获得 across prep. 横过,穿过 act v. 表演,扮演(角色);行动 active adj. 积极的;活跃的 activity n. 活动 actor n. 男演员 actress n. 女演员 actually adv. 实际地;现实地 add v. 添加,增加 addition n. 增加 address n. 地址 adult n./adj 成年人 advantage n. 有利条件;优势, 优点 advertisement n. 广告 advice n. 忠告,劝告;建议 afford v. 负担得起,抽得出(时间) afraid adj. 害怕的;担心的 Africa n. 非洲 after prep. 1.在……之后;2.在……后面 adv. 在后;后来 conj. 在……以后 afternoon n. 下午 again adv. 再一次;再;又 against prep. 对着,反对 age n. 1.年龄 2.时代 aged adj. 有……年岁的;上年龄的 agent n. 代理人 ago adv. 以前 agree v. 同意;应允 ahead adv. 在前,向前 aim n. 目的;目标 打算;瞄准 air n. 空气;大气 airline n. 航线 airport n. 机场 alarm n. 警报 alive adj. 活着的,存在的 all adj. 全(部);总;整 adv. 全部地 pron. 全部;全体人员 全部;全体人员 allow v. 允许,准许 almost adv. 几乎,差不多 ================================================ 压缩包内容: 上海市中考英语考试大纲英语总词汇表.docx

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  • ID:4-5432445 图解初中英语语法 课件(30张PPT)

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    图解英语语法 什么是语法? 一般现在时vs.一般过去时 一般将来时 进行时 进行时 完成时 完成时 完成进行时 完成进行时 形容词 形容词 副词 动词短语 系动词 感官动词 动名词 不定式 连词 介词 短语 虚拟语气 被动语态 附加问句 关系代词 关系代词that 从句 倒装句 倒装句

  • ID:4-5432444 初中英语学习方法指导课件(27张PPT)

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    学习英语的重要性 1.英语是国际交往的主要语言之一。我国的经济建设和对外开放需要大量通晓英语的人才。同学们是祖国的未来,从现在起就要努力学好英语 一、单项填空(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 二、完形填空(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分) 三、阅读理解(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分) 四、回答问题(共10小题;每小题2分,满分20分) 五、综合阅读 (共10小题;每小题2分,满分20分) 六、书面表达(共两节;A节5分,B节15分;满分20分) 学习英语的重要性 2. 初中英语系主要学科(中考满分120分) 中考题型 3.世界那么大,我们要去看看。 澳大利亚悉尼歌剧院 英国丘吉尔庄园 英国剑桥大学数学学院 英国伦敦塔桥 徐志摩诗中的康桥(英国剑桥) 世界上最大的电车餐厅 (澳洲墨尔本) 如何学好英语 不管学习哪一门课程,课堂上认真听讲都是至关重要。听课不仅仅是听老师说话,听老师讲了什么知识,强调了哪些内容,并对老师反复强调的知识点做好笔记,比如记单词,词组,语法,优美的语段等。上课要专心听讲的同时,还要听清老师的发音、朗读,做到口到、眼到、手到、心到其中心到最为关键?切不可“身在曹营心在汉”。 一、专心听 一、专心听 上课时要专心听讲的同时,还要听清老师的发音、朗读,做到口到、眼到、手到、心到其中心到最为关键?切不可“身在曹营心在汉”。课后多听英语录音、广播?培养听的 能力。起初,哪怕只能听懂一个词、一个短语、一句话也好,只要坚持听,就能熟悉英语的语音和语调?就能逐渐听懂英语,提高自己的听力水平。 一、专心听 课后多听英语录音、广播?培养听的能力。可以在起床后,睡觉前、吃饭时、娱乐或做家务时,放上英语随意听。 起初,哪怕只能听懂一个词、一个短语、一句话也非常好。听不进去也不必刻意捕捉什么,同一盘带子可每半面或一面反复播放一星期或两星期,直至熟悉带上内容为止。 只要坚持听,就能熟悉英语的语音和语调,就能逐渐听懂英语,提高自己的听力水平。你也会发现英语开始变得容易了。 二、认真读 上课要认真跟着老师朗读,同时每天坚持二十分钟到半小时的晨读。朗读是训练语音、培养语感的练习。早晨空气清新,是朗读英语的最好时光。特别是我们现在学习的课文必须多读、达到熟练背诵的程度。此外,课外还可以读些难度适中的文章,不断培养自己的学习兴趣,增强自己的英语预感。(例如,书虫系列丛书) 三、大胆讲 学一门语言,最主要的目的就是在生活中使用这门语言。比如当看到一件物品,读到一段优美的话时,就要试着用英语说出来,一开始肯定有一定的难度,但是,只要敢于去尝试,就一定有进步。这就要求同学们在上课时应抓住一切机会,克服羞怯和害怕的心理,积极参加课堂上老师组织的各类听、说、读、写的英语实践活动。充分利用从教材中学到的材料,积极、大胆地在课内外各种场合运用它们。经常找机会与老师、同学或懂英语的人开展语言交际活动。学习语言的过程就是不断改正错误的过程学语言而不犯错误是不可能的,进步就是在不断改正错误的过程中取得的。 四、反复背 著名语言学家、北京大学教授叶蛮声说过:“学习语言必须多读、多讲、多背诵。华东师范大学外国语学院院长、张维教授说:“我学外语,,很大程度上得益于“死记硬背,”这是学语言根本离不开的方法。英语中需要积累记忆的东西很多,单词,短语,语法,句型,这就需要你不断的记忆.因此,我们每一位英语老师天天都会对所学的单词和重点句型进行听写,测验,这样做能够培养同学养成天天背诵英语的好习惯。为今后的高中乃至大学的英语的学习打下夯实的基础。 四、反复背 例如:我的语感比较好,有些题我也不知道为什么选这个答案,但我一读就觉得就是这个答案.当然,这需要毅力,坚持背诵,你会发现你会收获很多很多东西.而且背多了之后,你会发现你会爱上背诵的,自然而然的也会形成一种习惯. 复习点的确定 一天 一周 一个月 五、坚持写 初学外语时,要认真书写好字母、单词和句子,力求规范。认真、规范既是学习外语的基本要求。同时也应是我们的学习态度。随着英语水平的逐渐提高,可用英语写些日记、书信等。写完后?可请老师修改。这样就会不断提高你的英语写作能力。 中考书面表达 六、态度决定一切 在学习过程中,我们要树立目标,自己给自己施压,自觉地复习和巩固所学内容,主动请教。在完成了规定的任务后,要有“先人一步,捷足先登”的思想。充分利用闲暇时间,弥补薄弱环节,加强优势。半年后,一年后,你会发现你已远远走在其他同学前面了。 英语中有这样一句话?Wellbeginning half done?良好的开端是成功的一半 同学们在开始学习一门外语时,应树立坚定的自信心,培养坚韧不拔的毅力,养成良好的学习习惯。日积月累、持之以恒,就不难使自己在英语学习中取得优异的成绩。

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  • ID:4-5419808 英语国际音标发音标准【附发音器官示意图】(整理版)

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    第一部分 英语国际音标发音标准 国际音标(英语语音) 元音 单元音 前元音 [i:] [i] [e] [?]   中元音 [?] [?:] [?]     后元音 [u:] [u] [?:] [?] [a:] 双元音 开合双元音 [ei] [ai] [?i] [?u] [au] 集中双元音 [i?] [ε?] [u?]     辅音 爆破音 清辅音 [p] [t] [k]     浊辅音 [b] [d] [g]     摩擦音 清辅音 [f] [s] [?] [θ] [h] 浊辅音 [v] [z] [?] [?] [r]  破擦音 清辅音 [t?] [tr] [ts]     浊辅音 [d?] [dr] [dz]     鼻音 (浊辅音) [m] [n] [?]     舌则音 (浊辅音) [l] (l)       半元音 (浊辅音) [w] [j]       语音知识:1) 字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母只有a,e,i(y),o,u 2) 音素:音的最小单位。英语共48个音素,其中元音音素20个,辅音音素28个。3) 元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。4) 辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。 5) 音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple,stu'dent,tea'cher,un'der'stand。 6) 开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike home due; b) 辅音+元音 he,go,hi。 7) 闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad,bed,sit,hot,cup; b)元音+辅音 it。8) 前中后元音:根据舌位的变化,元音又可分为前元音、中元音和后元音。舌位在口腔前部的时候发出的元音叫做前元音,舌位在口腔中部的时候发出的元音叫做中元音,同理,舌位后缩到口腔后部发出的元音就叫做后元音。 9)28个辅音按发音时是否振动声带分为清辅音和浊辅音。按发音时以不同方式调动的不同发音器官来分类,英语辅音又可分为爆破音、摩擦音、破擦音、鼻音、舌边音、半元音。 第二部分 发音器官图及说明 发音主要分为三部分:喉部、口腔、鼻腔。 A、喉部的发音器官: 1.气管 2.声带(包括声门) 3.会厌软骨 B、口腔的发音器官: 4.舌:a.舌端 b.舌前部 c.舌后部d.舌根 5.硬腭 6. 软腭 7.上齿龈 8.牙齿 9.唇 l0.小舌 C、鼻腔 26个英文字母音标表 第三部分 发 音 标 准 一、元音的发音 I单元音 发音方法描述: 发音时舌尖轻抵下齿,前舌部向上腭抬起,口形扁而平。发音时间延续较长。 例词:Be meat sheep secret believe 例句:I don’t believe it. He feels very weak. 发音方法描述: 发音时舌尖抵下齿,舌前部向硬腭抬起,口形扁平,发音时间短促。 例词:It big rich visit loaded business 例句:It’s a very big city. I feel a bit dizzy. 发音方法描述: 舌尖抵下齿,前舌部向硬腭抬起,口形扁平,气流从口腔泄出,声带振动。发音时间短促。 例词:Fed best them wedding refresh 例句:Well fed,well bred. I will never forget petty. 发音方法描述: 舌尖抵下齿,舌前部稍抬,双唇开口度较大,并向两边平展,发音短促。 例词:At have flat stand saturday 例句:I’m glad to know that. He was born in a happy family. 发音方法描述: 舌身放低后缩,舌后部隆起,口形张大,全开,声带振动。发音延续较长。 例词:Art fast March party advance 例句:My father has a large farm. Please park your car in the car park. 发音方法描述: 舌身尽量降低并收缩,舌后部抬起。双唇收圆更收小,并稍向前突。发音延续较长。 例词:Saw born course thought morning 例句:They are talking about Ford. I decided to go abroad after graduation. 发音方法描述: 舌身尽量降低并后缩,舌后部抬起,口形稍收圆,开口比长元音稍大但不向前突出。发音短促。 例词:Hot boss want doctor holiday 例句:Who’s knocking at the door. Lost time is never found again. 发音方法描述: 舌身后缩,舌后部尽量抬起,口形较小较圆,较突出。发音延长。 例词:Do you tooth choose June 例句:You must follow the rules of the school. Whose shoes are these? 发音方法描述: 舌身后缩,舌后部抬 起,口形收圆,稍微突出, 比的口形略放松。发音短促。 例词:Book good put wood push 例句:This book is a good cook-book. Let me have a look. 发音方法描述 舌身后缩至口腔中部,舌后部稍抬起,双唇较扁,开口较大。发音短促。 例词:Up but does rough thunder 例句:The old man has got much money. I went to cinema just for fun. 发音方法描述: 舌位抬高,舌身后缩并放平,口形微张,双唇扁平,双唇肌肉较紧张。发音延续较长。例词:Sir her third worth early 例句:Can I help you,sir? Everybody deserves good services. 发音方法描述: 舌身放平,舌中部抬起,口形微开,双唇扁平,双唇肌肉放松。在词首或词中发得较模糊,在词尾时应该适当延长。 例词:About again teacher writer paper 例句:We ran along the river. She is a famous professor. 单元音对比 i: ----- i eat---it seek----sick read----rid feel----fill keep----kip meal----mill e ----- i bet---bit bed---bid set---sit fell---fill pen---pin ? ----- e bad---bed band---bend sad---said had---head gas---guess gat---get ?: ----- ? court---cot short---shot port---pot lord---lot naught---not chalk---chock u:-----u poor---pull food---foot fool---full cool---cook tool---took shoot---should a:----- ? dark---duck march---much lark---luck cart---cut calm---come ?----- ? cat---cut hat---hut bad---bud cap---cup ran---run wan---won Ⅱ双元音 发音方法描述: 发音由向自然滑动,滑动过程中口形从半开到半合,舌位随之抬高。 例词:Eight day face gate faithful 例句:It’s pay day today. Better late than never. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向自然滑动,滑动过程中,口形逐渐由半开到小而圆,舌位由半低到高。 例词:Old so show note close 例句:It’s so cold. Please close the window. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向滑动,滑动过程中口形从开到合。发此音时注意把音发足。 例词:Eye tie ride knife arrive 例句:The kite is flying in the shy. Prices are very high these days. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向自然滑动,滑动过程中双唇收拢收圆,口形由大到小,舌位由低到高。 例词:Out how about cloud mountain 例句:I couldn’t help shouting out. The milk became sour. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向自然滑动,但不到舌位就停止了。滑动的过程中双唇逐渐由圆变扁,口形由大到小。 例词:Boy joy join enjoy spoil 例句:He likes making noise in the class. The boy is spoilt by his parents. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向自然滑动,滑动过程中发音较清楚,发音较弱,双唇始终半开。 例词:Ear fear here clear 例句:I’m living near here. Students became all ears when their professor was teaching. 发音方法描述: 由向自然滑动,滑动过程中,开口程度稍稍收小。 例词:Air care hair share parent 例句:Their parents stood over there.We rushed there in a tearing hurry. 发音方法描述: 发音时由向自然滑动,滑动过程中口形由收圆变为半开。 例词:Poor tour sure rural cruel 例句:The poor guy was not sure what to do. The tourists are unhappy with their tour. 双元音与单元音对比 ei-----e wait---wet say---said fade---fed late---let pain---pen ?u -----?: coal---call boat---bought woke---walk fold---ford low---law note---naught ai----- a: life---laugh pike---park mike---mark bike---bark like---lark kite---cart au----- ? pound---pun town---tunnel round----run bout---but bow---bun down---dun ?i----- ?: toy---tall boy---bore loyal---law oil---all coil---call joy---jaw au----- ?: loud---lord found---ford shout---short cow---call house----horse now---naught 双元音对比 ?u----- au crow---crowd load---loud hole---how know---now code---cow flow---flower ai-----au by---bow find---found mice---mouse shy---shout fly---flower climb---cloud i?-----ε? here---hair beer---bear fear---fair cheer---chair peer---pair dear---dare Ⅲ 辅音 第一节 爆破音 发音方法描述: 双唇闭紧,气流突然冲开双唇,冲出口腔。是清辅音,声带不振动。是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词:Pit pay proper open happy blue baby bike bride 例句:Chongqing is famous for its hot pot. Betty walked in a busy street. 发音方法描述: 舌尖紧抵上齿龈,形成阻 碍,然后突然分开,气流 冲出口腔。[t]是清辅音, 声带不振动,[d]是浊辅 音,声带振动。 例词:too take touch right tight do dirt card tired sudden 例句:Don’t tell my teacher,Tom. David told me that Doctor Li would be his tutor this year. 发音方法描述: 舌后部抬起,紧贴软腭,形成阻碍。气流冲开阻碍后冲出口腔。[k]是清辅音,声带不振动,[g]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词:Kick book like dock occasion gate get egg ghost guide 例句:The book teaches us how to cook. All that glitters is not gold, 第二节 爆破音对比 p-----b pig---big park---bark rope---robe pull---bull cap---cab play---blame t-----d tell---dell tear---dear right---ride heart---hard town---down seat---seed k-----g class---glass back---bag pick---pig dock---dog coat---goat could---good 摩擦音 发音方法描述: 下唇轻触上齿,气流由唇齿问的缝隙通过,摩擦成音。[f]是清辅音,声带不振动,[v]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: Fly far wife off laugh very village live over save 例句: There are fifteen girls in my class. I’m living in a flat by the river. 发音方法描述: 舌尖轻触上齿背部,气流从舌齿问的缝隙送出。是清辅音,声带不振动。是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词:Thank think thief mouth teeth This those then that smooth 例句: You should think of it. This book is better than that. 发音方法描述: 舌端靠近上齿龈,气流从舌端和齿龈间通过,形成摩擦音。[s]是清辅音,声带不振动,[z]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词:So sir pencil piece dress zoo zone zero use eraser 例句: Did you see the snake in the grass? Please close the window. 发音方法描述: 舌身抬起靠近硬腭,舌端抬向上齿龈,形成狭长通道,气流由此通过,双唇稍微收圆并略突出。是清辅音,声带不振动 是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: She sheep wish sure special Pleasure garage decision vision division 例句: She is a shy girl. What do you usually do in your leisure time? 发音方法描述: 发音时口张开,在通过声门时发出轻微摩擦,气流经过口腔时不受阻碍。[h]是清辅音,声带不振动。 例词: He her how who ahead 例句: How are you? He doesn’t have any hope. 发音方法描述: 舌尖卷起,抬向上齿龈后部,但不发生摩擦,舌两侧稍收拢,口形略突出,气流通过时发出轻微摩擦,[r]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: Right run cry bread primary 例句: Those red roses are very pretty. I’ll attend a press conference. 第四节 摩擦音对比 f-----v ferry---very fan---van safe---save few---view leaf---leave fail---veil θ-----? thick---this worth---worthy bath---bathe thief---these south---southern thank---than θ-----s thing---sing thin---sin thought---sought thank---sank both---boss faith---face s-----z rice---rise sink---zinc race---raise sip---zip place---please face---faze ?-----s she---see shed---said show---sew shame---same sheep---seek shy---sign r-----l(摩擦音与舌边音对比) read---lead rice---lice arrive---alive right---light red---led rate---late ?-----d(摩擦音与爆破音对比) there---dare than---dam thus---dose they---day then---den that---dad 第五节 破擦音 发音方法描述: 舌尖舌端抬高,贴住上齿龈后部形成阻碍,气流冲出阻碍摩擦成音。口形稍突出,略成方形。是清辅音,声带不振动,是 浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: Child check teach catch Job page just judge 例句: Children always like chicken and French fries. Just have fun. 发音方法描述: 舌身与[tr]相似,舌尖向上卷起,并抵住上齿龈后部,气流冲出舌尖和齿龈之问的阻碍,双唇收圆,稍向前突出。[tr]是清辅音,声带不振动,[dr]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: Try tree true track Dry dream drive 例句: You should have another try. Let it drip dry. 发音方法描述: 舌端贴住上齿龈,形成阻碍,气流冲破阻碍,口形扁平。[ts]是清辅音,声带不振动,[dz]是浊辅音,声带振动。 例词: pets coats gets tests points roads seeds reads lands 例句: She wants to buy some dates. Will your friends join us? 第六节 破擦音对比 t?----- d? cheap---jeep chin---gin church---judge choice---joy choke---joke search---surge tr -----t? train---chain trunk---chunk trip---chip treat---cheat trees---cheese truth---choose dr----- d? drug---jug dressed---jest drudge---judge drain---jane draw---jaw drew---june t?----- ts search---suits teach---treats catch---cats watch---what’s each---eats inch---its ts -----dz seats---seeds bats---beds carts---cards pets---pads coats---codes bits---bids 第七节 鼻音 发音方法描述: 双唇紧闭,软腭下垂,气流从鼻腔送出。在词末时,须略延长,以防止吞音。 例词: Me my come tomorrow farm 例句: Poets like to write poems about the moon. He is a handsome boy. 发音方法描述: 舌尖紧贴上齿龈,软腭下垂,形成阻碍,气流由鼻腔送出。在词末时,须略延长,以防止吞音。 例词: Need name know skin strange 例句: This is a nice tune. I spent nine nights in writing the paper. 发方法描述: 软腭下垂,舌后部向软腭抬起,堵住口腔通道,气流从鼻腔送出。词末时发音清晰有力,略微延长。 例词: Bank song singing longer English 例句: She’s good at singing English songs. I need a long string. 第八节 舌边音 发音方法描述: 元音前读清晰[?],舌端抵上齿龈,气流从舌的一侧或两侧泄出;辅音前或词末发含糊[?],舌端也抵上齿龈,但是与清晰音相比,舌前部低,舌后部高,发音略长。 例词: Late like long low close All sell pull little kettle 例句: Lily likes wearing long hair. Sue is a bright little girl. 第九节 鼻音、舌边音对比 n-----l net---let know---low need---lead nine---line night---light snow---slow n----- ? sin---sing than---thank son---song thin---thing tin---ting win---wing n-----m now---mow noon---moon son---some ton---Tom thin---theme tine---time 第十节 半元音 发音方法描述: 舌后部向软腭抬起,舌位高,口形收圆并稍向前突出,发音短促,一经发出,立刻向后面的元音滑动,起辅音的作用。 例词: We week want where whether 例句: The weather is getting warm. Would you like to tell me the way to the railway station? 发音方法描述: 舌前部尽量向硬腭抬 起,双唇平展,口微 开,舌面和硬腭稍有摩擦,该半元音一经发出,立刻向后面的元音滑动,起辅音的作用。 例词: Yes you young yak year 例句: 略 第十一节 半元音与其它音对比 w-----v wise---vise went---vent wire---via worse---verse wane---vain wine---vine w----- ?:/? water---alter waltz---ought wolf---off wall---all water---order want---on j---- d? yet---jet yam---jam yoke---joke young---jump yes---jets yard---jar j---i/i: year---ear yeast---east yearn---in yet---it Yale---ill yes---is 读音规则 元音字母a, e, i, o, u在重读音节中的一般读音规则 ??? a?? e? ??? i ????? o??? ? ?u 重读开音节:[ ei ]? [ i: ]???[ ai ]?? [ ?u ]?? ?[ju:] [u:] 重读闭音节:[ ? ]?? ?[ e ]??? ?[ i ]?? ? [ ? ]??[ ? ] [ u ] 注意:除了符合读音规则的词以外,还有一些词是例外的,需要逐个记忆。 重读开音节:一个辅音加e结尾的单词, 元音字母a ,e ,i ,o ,u 经常发长音 如: cake theme bike close consume 重读闭音节:元音字母a ,e ,i ,o ,u 经常发短音 如: have bed sit love bus 常见字母组合在单词中的读音:是由两个字母搭配而成的一种固定组合 1. 两个辅音字母在一起,通常只发其中一个辅音字母的音。 两个相同或不同的辅音字母在一起时,只发其中一个辅音字母的音。 如:wright know sign bomb 如:letter copper class ladder 另外:两个辅音字母在一起时,两个辅音字母也可都发音。 如:itself soft accept almost 2. 两个元音字母在一起,通常只发其中一个元音字母的基本音。 两个元音字母在一起时,发第一或第二个元音字母的基本音。 如:boat people soul sea 如:great believe height 3. 字母c在e, i, y前边读[ s ],其他读作[ k ]。 如:cell centre city cinema cycle cynic 其他:cat cake call 4. 字母g在e ,i ,y前边读[ d? ],其他读作[ g ]。 如:age agent giant gin gym technology 其他:good get 5. s后的清辅音[ k ] [ p ] [ t ] 要浊化为[ g ] [ b ] [ d ]音。 如:sky skill stop student space sport 6. 字母组合ai一般发[ ei ] [ e ] [ i ]音。 如:[ ei ] straight [ e ] said [ i ] Britain mountain 7. 字母组合er发长音[ ?: ]和短音[ ? ]两种情况: 在重读音节中er一般发长音[ ?:] 在弱读音节中一般发短音[ ? ] 如:[ ?:] person??prefer??thermos [ ? ] father? teacher letter 8. 字母组合ea发[ i? ] [ i : ][ e ]音。 如: [ i? ] real really idea [ i: ] tea beat heat [ e ] bread head spread 9. 字母组合or发[ ?: ]和[ ?: ]两种音。 如:[ ?: ] horse nor corn [ ?: ] worse worst work world [ ? ] forget tutor 10. 字母组合ou常发??[ au ] [ ? ] 如: [ au ] loud count house ??? [ ? ] double trouble country enough ????在ght前发[ ?: ] fought thought bought ?? 少数情况发[ u ] could would should ??特例:[ au ] south 和??[ ? ]southern 11. 字母组合tion有两种发音[t?n ], [??n ] 如: [ t?n ] question [ ??n ] situation nation invitation 12. 有些单词中某些字母不发音 如:hour climb build grandpa Christmas know listen 失音规则:某一个或者几个音脱落,把单词短语和句子快速连缀成串。 单词间的失音有四种类型: 1. 前一词以“持续音+[t] [d]结尾,后一词以辅音开头,则其中[t] [d]失音有: [st]+辅音 [ft]+辅音 [xt]+辅音 [ld]+辅音 [zd]+辅音 [td]+辅音 [wt]+辅音 [md]+辅音 [nd]+辅音 [nt]+辅音 [lt]+辅音 [vd]+辅音 如: last class next day bend back settled there refused both 2. 前一词以破音/擦音+ [t] [d]结束,后一词以辅音开头,则其中[t] [d]失音。 [pt]+辅音 [tft]+辅音 [kt]+辅音(如完结于skt则脱k而不是t) [bd]+辅音 [gd]+辅音 [dvd]+辅音 [vd]+辅音 如:kept quiet swept valley rubbed gently 注:后一词如始于h则[t][d]很少脱落如:kept her waiting 3. 动词否定结尾的缩写形式 n't 中的[t]失音,无论后一词以元音还是辅音开头。 如:You mustn't lose it. Doesn't she know? He wouldn't overeat. 4. 前一词以[t] 结束,后一词以[t] 或[d]开头,则前面的[t]往往失音。 如:I've got to go. What do you want? 不完全爆破 实质上也存在不发音现象: 如果前面单词结尾和后面单词开头是两个或者同一个破擦音( [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g]) 则前一音保留口型和发音时间却并不发音。但是听者能感到这个音的存在。如: cut down step down slab glass stick to jump pass get cracking break down think back take care let go get back step by step 派生词重音与词根一致 如: like act possible ↓ ↓ ↓ dislike active impossible 前缀: a-, ab-, ac-, ad-, al-, de-, dis-, em-, en-, in-, mis-, pre-, re-, trans-, un- 重音一般在第二个音节 如:aback decide indeed unable 带后缀-ary, -ery, -ory, -ize, -ism, -ist, -ment, -mony的词重音一般在第一个音节 如:additory acidize acrimony 带后缀-aim,-ain,-cur,-duce,-eem,-ere,-firm,-gn,-lt, -oin,-oke,-ose, -pt, -rce,-self,-ume 的词重音一般在第二个音节 如:herself abduce confirm 带后缀-ade, -ain, -ee,-eer,-esque,-ete,-ine,-ique,-oon的词重音一般在最后一个音节 如:abrade antique aeromarine 带后缀-eous, -ian, -ic,-ics,-ious,-ish,-it,-liar,-sion,-tal,-tion的词重音一般在倒数第二个音节 如:familiar condition abolish 有些复合词, 重音在第一个音节上 如:anyone breakfast daybreak 多音节词一般重读倒数第三音节 如:capacity opportunity possibility 词性变化时, 重读音节会变化 名词、形容词一般在第一个音节上重读。动词一般在第二个音节上重读 如:(n.) contrast desert object produce (v.) contrast desert object produce 特殊读音   1)音的连读:前面的词以元辅音结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,这样结尾的辅音要和开头的元音连读。 not at all,half an hour,I love you and all、after all。   2)失去爆破:辅音爆破音或摩擦音后面跟的是爆破音、破擦音和摩擦等,前面的辅音要失去爆破。 good girl,good student,good job,expression,school,extreme。   3)音的同化:两个特殊的音碰到一起,会发出变异成特殊的音。 Would you do it? I am glad to meet you、Can't you see it? last year,this year。 PAGE

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